Features, Events and Processes Prioritization for Deep Borehole Repository

By Dr. Ethan Bates

Deep Isolation Director of Systems Engineering Dr. Ethan Bates presented his paper, co-authored with borehole sciences expert John Midgley, titled Features, Events, and Processes Prioritization for Deep Borehole Disposal Concepts in Crystalline Rock and Shale, at the American Nuclear Society Meeting in Anaheim, Calif., earlier this month.

We sat down with Dr. Bates to learn more about these analyses.

Q: What are FEPs? Why are they relevant to the safety analysis of nuclear waste disposal?

FEPs stands for “features, events, and processes” and studying this allows us to categorize phenomena affecting nuclear waste repository performance.  Specifically, events and processes impact the features of the repository, and a screening process is needed to evaluate which of these is important to safety in the long run. This paper generally addresses FEPs for borehole concepts that Deep Isolation (and other institutions) are considering and prioritizes a subset of FEP groups to guide future collaborations. This is to support the safety and feasibility evaluation of deep borehole concepts in a wider range of geologies, including crystalline rock and shale.

Q: What was your motivation for prioritizing features, events, and processes in deep borehole disposal concepts in crystalline rock and shale?

Modern drilling technologies broaden our options for nuclear waste disposal to a wider range of sites, geological environments, depths, and configurations.  In the past, researchers (including myself) focused on crystalline rock as the host rock, but Deep Isolation has shown that equally safe repositories could be constructed in shale using horizontal drilling. This option could be very helpful in the siting process (which can be challenging) but it increases the scope of work required in the early stages of designing borehole repositories. 

To perform a comprehensive evaluation of the safety of a deep borehole repository, we need to analyze all the phenomena, initiating events, and boundary conditions affecting deep borehole repositories over 10,000 years or more.  With limited resources, it’s important to focus our efforts on the FEPs that are assessed to be of greater importance.

Borehole FEPs Graphic
This graphic shows some of the FEP groups that our paper studied for a horizontal repository in shale and a vertical repository in crystalline rock.

Q: What are the high-priority FEPs, and how were they determined?

To streamline the prioritization process, a smaller subset of FEP groups was created. Then, an expert panel (including those from a leading national laboratory) was convened to assess the relative importance of the FEP groups.  FEP groups related to the host rock’s natural barrier, which varies with the depth and drilling process, were deemed high-priority FEPs because they directly impact the safety of the repository. These groups are:

  • radionuclide transport through the host rock and overlying geologic units;
  • seal and plug degradation; and
  • radionuclide transport through the disturbed rock zone.

Further evaluation of these FEPs will advance the generic feasibility and safety assessment of deep borehole disposal concepts.

Q: What are the big takeaways from this work?

Early findings on the high priority FEP group related to host rock transport properties show that deep borehole disposal enables wider access to host rocks where diffusion of radionuclides (extremely slow and predictable, relative to advection) is the dominant transport mechanism.  Imagine having a sugar cube at the bottom of a glass of water: With diffusion, the water is not moving and it takes a very long time for the sugar to dissolve into the water.  Having advection is equivalent to stirring the glass and allows for much more rapid transport of the sugar.

Q: What are the next steps?

High- and medium-priority FEPs were identified in this paper to better understand the long-term performance assessment of deep boreholes for nuclear waste disposal. Although a preliminary analysis was conducted on the high-priority FEP group related to host rock properties, additional work is needed to draw general correlations about the depth variation of clay properties.  Future work on the other high priority FEP groups such as transport through the disturbed rock zone and seal and plug degradation might eventually show these FEPs to have a lower significance in the safety case than initially thought, for example, by showing that the repository performs safely even when these features and barriers are conservatively assumed to be degraded. Additional efforts will also go toward the medium priority FEPs such as gas generation in the emplacement zone, transport and dilution in the biosphere, and matrix diffusion, which can act as an important delay mechanism in crystalline rock.

Related posts

*Deep Borehole Expert Joins Deep Isolation

*Sealing of a Deep Horizontal Borehole Repository for Nuclear Waste

Blog by Kari Hulac, June 8, 2021

Our Podcast Celebrates its First Year

When I was hired at Deep Isolation in early 2020, I was eager to apply my experience in news, social media and renewable energy marketing to a new-to-me topic: nuclear waste disposal.

However, of the skills listed on my resume, “podcast host” was not among them. So when two weeks into my job I found out that, “Oh yes, the company was very much in need of a host for a new series about nuclear waste,” I won’t lie: I gulped.

Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story logo
Deep Isolation’s podcast was established in the spring of 2020.

But when I discovered that it would be my role to represent people similar to myself — nuclear industry outsiders mostly unaware of this hidden-in-plain-sight worldwide problem — I knew it was something I was willing to try.

The goal was for Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story to embody one of the most important elements of a successful nuclear waste disposal program: the ability to listen, to recognize, and to understand different perspectives on nuclear waste and all of its dimensions; as a former reporter and editor, those objectives were in my comfort zone.

Afterall, what better way is there to collect as much wisdom as possible on a complicated topic? Now, a year later, we have released 12 episodes with plenty more to come. We’ve also incorporated additional hosts (Liz Muller and Sam Brinton) to provide valuable insights to these conversations.

I’m happy (and relieved!) to say the podcast has earned a five-star rating on Apple, with listeners saying they appreciate its “to the point and direct vibe” and the expertise of our interviewees, who include citizen activists, nuclear industry veterans, government leaders and scientists.

I’ve learned so much from each and every one of these guests and am grateful for their willingness to speak openly about the challenges they face in their respective efforts to tackle this controversial problem.

Don’t Miss Our New Podcast Highlights Reel

There are too many highlights to mention, but we’ve assembled some of them into a short montage that I hope you’ll take a few minutes to watch or listen to.

The highlights reel includes Kara Colton, who points out that nuclear waste — often incorrectly portrayed as “green goo” ala “The Simpsons” — can be an object as seemingly innocuous as a glove or a broom.

Or there’s the episode with Judy Treichel and Steve Frishman, two “ordinary” citizens who’ve spent 30 years informing the public about the U.S. government’s plan to build a mined waste repository in Nevada. They discuss how their effort eventually led to Yucca Mt. being put on hold because, as they said the states residents believe, “Nevada is not a wasteland.”

New episodes are added monthly. Watch or listen at nuclearwastepodcast.com or subscribe via Apple, Spotify, Amazon or Google. The series is also a playlist on our YouTube channel.

Please note: Although Deep Isolation is the producer, any opinions expressed by either the interviewers or their subjects do not represent our official company position.

And as always, we’d love to hear from you! Who should interview next? What questions about nuclear waste would you like answered? Just send an email to podcast@deepisolation.com.

Blog by Jessica Chow, May 11, 2021

Demystifying Nuclear Waste: Answers to Your Questions

Nuclear waste pellets
Spent nuclear fuel comes in the form of small pellets.

The issue of nuclear waste and the history of how it has been handled in the United States and worldwide is a complicated one. When it comes to discussing the issue of finding solutions, the conversations can be difficult due to conflicting opinions and viewpoints.

Growing up, nuclear waste was not a topic that ever crossed my mind or came up in conversation. In high school, when I was deciding on my college major, a desire to help solve the global climate crisis motivated me to study nuclear engineering. Yet at the time, I didn’t have a clear understanding of the complex nature of the nuclear fuel cycle and the industry at large. 

When I started taking nuclear engineering courses at the University of California, Berkeley, nuclear waste was seldom discussed in classes or seminars. Even when I eventually took a nuclear waste technical course, the societal challenges of nuclear waste storage and disposal were barely discussed, and if they were, the issues were often dismissed because it was considered that the public’s concerns were not “based in science.”

As a student, I spent time volunteering at different science education events throughout the San Francisco Bay Area where I learned how to talk to people about nuclear science. I was and still am incredibly passionate about nuclear and broader science education.

As someone approaching nuclear science from a technical perspective, and as someone who was surrounded by peers who viewed nuclear science similarly, it was difficult to honestly understand why the public was skeptical of nuclear power and fearful of nuclear waste.  However, I have learned from listening to all sides, that the public has incredibly valid concerns and questions about nuclear power and radioactive waste, and the industry has to do a better job of understanding these concerns.  

Jessica Chow as a nuclear engineering student at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jessica Chow as a nuclear engineering student at the University of California, Berkeley.

The storage and disposal of nuclear waste is more than just a technical problem, and solving the puzzle of how to permanently dispose of nuclear waste requires a greater understanding of its intersection with our own lives and well-being.

A desire to advance this understanding is behind Deep Isolation’s decision to launch a new resource, About Nuclear Waste. (It’s also why we launched an educational podcast last year called Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story.)

As the curator for the About Nuclear Waste content, my goal is to outline the facts of nuclear science within the context of valid concerns in order to find common ground that helps our readers have more productive discussions about this important issue.

There are approximately 500,000 metric tons of nuclear waste worldwide, and none of it has been permanently disposed of yet. Every year more nuclear waste is generated from nuclear power plants and nuclear industries. As the world begins to seriously explore advanced nuclear options to develop more low-carbon energy sources, nuclear waste will continue to be a problem for future generations unless an equal effort is put into finding a solution for it.

I hope you find About Nuclear Waste helpful and informative. Sharing this knowledge of what nuclear waste is will hopefully be a good step toward a shared understanding that will help build public support for a permanent disposal solution.  If you don’t find your questions answered please let us know, and we will do our best to address them in future updates to this resource.

As CEO of the nuclear waste disposal company Deep Isolation, my main focus is using innovation to solve the decades-old problem of what to do with nuclear waste. But finding solutions to the world’s toughest environmental problems is also reflected in my work with Berkeley Earth, a nonprofit that’s a widely respected source of independent unbiased climate change and air pollution data.

Ten years ago I co-founded Berkeley Earth to bring robust data and analysis to the question of global warming. Seeking facts over opinions, we organized a group of scientists to reanalyze the earth’s surface temperature record and published our initial findings in 2012. Yes, climate change is real, and we need to act. While recent severe fires have raised the profile of our work, this has always been a core belief of the organization.   

So how does my concern about climate change relate to nuclear waste disposal? The climate crisis requires immediate action to reduce carbon-based energy sources. Nuclear energy is part of the low-carbon, energy mix, but if we don’t solve the waste problem then we’re not being responsible.  It’s also true that without a waste solution it’s highly unlikely that the next generation of nuclear energy reactors will come to life.

In fact, many countries and states are decommissioning their nuclear reactors and banning the development of new nuclear energy until the waste problem is solved.

No country has yet disposed of high-level nuclear waste or spent nuclear fuel. Most governments put the waste into temporary storage facilities.  Some are planning to place it in mined repositories, but progress with those repositories is measured in decades and even generations.

Deep Isolation’s method puts waste canisters in deep geologic isolation using boreholes, and because there are no humans underground this is safer, more easily deployed, and more cost-effective than other methods.

Climate change has me concerned, but there are many reasons to remain hopeful. I’m seeing the world respond to environmental disasters such as the West Coast fires with a renewed sense of urgency, and cleantech investors are taking note. 

The fact that Deep Isolation just closed $20 million in Series A funding shows that socially responsible investors are willing to support a cleantech company with a mission to become an integral part of a low-carbon future. 

As an environmentalist, I believe that safely and permanently disposing of the world’s current nuclear waste inventory while providing a path forward for new nuclear is the responsible thing to do for future generations and the planet.

Related Posts

Waste Disposal Issues Plague Nuclear Energy Industry

Nuclear Waste: A Social Responsibility

Blog by Deep Isolation Staff, Aug. 10, 2020

Social Scientist Explains Community Consent

One reason why governments worldwide struggle with implementing a permanent nuclear waste disposal solution is that they don’t adequately engage affected communities, most of which don’t want it in their backyards.

In a recent episode of Deep Isolation’s podcast, Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story, social scientist Dr. Thomas Webler discusses the challenges of reaching community consensus when deciding where to dispose of nuclear waste.

Webler, Research Fellow at the Social and Environmental Research Institute (SERI) and Associate Professor of Environmental Studies, Keene State College, is well-versed on the topic: He and his colleagues made recommendations to the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future and have advised the U.S. Department of Energy on nuclear waste disposal sites.

Dr. Thomas Webler
Dr. Thomas Webler, Research Fellow at the Social and Environmental Research Institute (SERI) and Associate Professor of Environmental Studies, Keene State College

In this episode, “Community Consent is Key to Resolving Disposal Impasse,” Webler says consent-based siting must respect the principle of self determination, meaning a community ought to have the power to accept or decline an offer to become a nuclear waste disposal site. 

“The most important thing that an institution could do to earn trust is to give the community the power and authority to close down, to turn off an operation, a facility, with no penalties or negative consequences,” Webler says.

He says it’s important that the entity seeking permission be open to listening, responding to concerns and discussing a variety of options rather than forcing a single solution or a particular disposal location.

He points to the 1996-1998 Seaborn panel in Canada as an example of a process that worked. The panel of experts visited different provinces and held public hearings to ensure that everyone had a chance to have their voices heard. Ultimately it was decided that a deep geologic repository was the best solution.

Consent is a concept that although challenging to define, is an admirable goal for any entity trying to find a site for a facility that could be perceived of as threatening. It is only through a process of engaging with a community and other stakeholders, as Webler describes, that informed consent can be achieved. When this process has been fair and transparent it can be a win for all involved. 

Watch Webler’s episode on video or listen to the podcast and let us know what you think!

While Deep Isolation is producing this series, any opinions expressed by either the interviewers or their subjects are not necessarily representative of our official position. 

Have a suggestion for someone we should interview? Email podcast@deepisolation.com. Learn more at deepisolation.com/nuclear-waste-podcast.

Related Posts

Waste Disposal Issues Plague Nuclear Energy Industry

Expert Discusses Nuclear Waste Dangers and Disposal Options

New Podcast-Vlog Series: Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story

Blog by Deep Isolation Staff, July 13, 2020

Temporary Nuclear Waste Storage Costs Keep Rising

In our fourth episode of Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story we delve deeper into the downside of not having a permanent storage solution for nuclear waste.

Our guest is James Taylor, General Manager of the environmental division of Bechtel’s Nuclear, Security and Environmental global business unit. Taylor talks about the long-term costs of the interim storage of nuclear waste.

James Taylor of Bechtel
James Taylor of Bechtel

According to an analysis by Deep Isolation, based on data from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Nuclear Association, more than half a million metric tons of high-level nuclear waste is temporarily stored at hundreds of sites worldwide. No country has yet implemented a disposal solution for spent commercial fuel.

Taylor explains the financial impacts of not having a permanent disposal solution for nuclear waste, pointing out that utility ratepayers and taxpayers are footing a bill that will continually amount to hundreds of millions of dollars annually until a solution is implemented. This isn’t just an issue in the United States: This is a global challenge impacting countries worldwide.

With most of the waste sitting in storage pools or above-ground dry storage facilities, interim storage has become a big business, costing $6 million to $8 million per year to manage these facilities. 

Taylor brings a business-insider perspective to this issue. In his leadership role at Bechtel, Taylor has general management responsibility for the management and operation of high-hazard nuclear and chemical cleanup sites, facility decommissioning, field remediation, project management services and nuclear material management, treatment and disposition. This work includes managing projects for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) and the United Kingdom’s Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). 

You can listen to this interview and others on our website or subscribe to the podcast series on your favorite player. Watch the videos on our YouTube playlist.

While Deep Isolation is producing this series, any opinions expressed by either the interviewers or their subjects are not necessarily representative of our official position.

Have a suggestion for a future podcast? Email us at podcast@deepisolation.com. Learn more at deepisolation.com/nuclear-waste-podcast.

Blog by Deep Isolation Staff, June 22, 2020

Waste Disposal Issues Plague Nuclear Energy Industry

In the second episode of our new podcast and vlog series, Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story, we talk to nuclear energy industry veteran and Senior Director at NEI Rod McCullum about why it’s critical that commercial nuclear power companies find a permanent disposal option.

Nuclear power plants provide one-fifth of the United States’ electricity annually, according to Department of Energy statistics. Proponents herald it as a reliable zero-emissions source of energy while detractors say the risks of nuclear energy outweigh the benefits. Currently, futuristic advanced reactor technologies are being developed to compliment present day technologies.

Deep Isolation as a company does not take a position on the use of nuclear power.  Our focus is on providing a solution for the accumulated radioactive waste that is currently temporarily stored in spent fuel cooling pools and above-ground storage facilities worldwide.

Nuclear Waste Dry Cask Storage Facility
A dry cask facility in Vermont.

“The good news with the nuclear industry is we contain all of our waste, all of our byproduct wastes,” says McCullum, Senior Director, Used Fuel and Decommissioning, for the Nuclear Energy Institute. “The bad news is we’ve still got them.”

In this episode, “Disposal Impasse Impacts Future of Next Generation Reactors,” McCullum explains why any failure to solve this problem could negatively affect the development of the next generation of nuclear energy reactors.

McCullum has 30 years of nuclear engineering, licensing, management and regulatory policy experience. Before joining NEI, he held positions with the U.S. Department of Energy and worked for several commercial nuclear power plants. 

You can listen to this interview and others on our website or subscribe to the series on your favorite player. Watch the videos on our YouTube playlist.

The opinions of the subjects interviewed do not represent Deep Isolation’s official position. Have a suggestion for a future topic? Email us at  podcast@deepisolation.com. Learn more at deepisolation.com/nuclear-waste-podcast.

Blog by Deep Isolation Staff, June 10, 2020

Expert Discusses Nuclear Waste Dangers and Disposal Options

We’re proud to present the debut episode of Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story, an interview with Dr. Arjun Makhijani, an electrical and nuclear engineer with decades of experience in the nuclear waste field. 

We hope this series will help demystify some of the issues surrounding nuclear waste because we know it’s not something everyone understands or is comfortable discussing. Nevertheless, we have a social responsibility to foster a dialogue that touches upon all sides of the story.  

In this episode, “Nuclear Waste Disposal Difficulties Plague the Industry,” Emmy Award-winning documentary filmmaker and Deep Isolation Advisor David Hoffman talks to Makhijani, President of Science Matters, LLC, to frame the problem and explore solutions.

Arjun Makhijani a Widely Respected Expert

We chose to lead off the series with Makhijani’s interview because of his extensive knowledge and because he speaks so candidly about why one should care about permanently disposing of nuclear waste.

Nuclear waste expert Arjun Makhijani.
Dr. Arjun Makhijani

In fact, Deep Isolation commissioned an in-depth report from Makhijani that culminated in a more than 130-page analysis of the history of U.S. nuclear waste disposal that explores even the most far-fetched options for disposing of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

While Makhijani doesn’t believe there’s a completely “safe” solution for permanently containing nuclear waste, he agrees with the general scientific consensus that the best option is deep geologic disposal.

“Decades of analysis, review, research, and real-world events have shown that deep geologic disposal poses risks that are orders of magnitude smaller than any other approach for long-term spent-fuel management,” he wrote in his paper.

You can listen to this interview and others on our website or subscribe to the series on your favorite player. Watch the videos on our YouTube playlist.

The opinions of the subjects interviewed do not represent Deep Isolation’s position on the matters discussed. Have a suggestion for someone we should interview? Email us at podcast@deepisolation.com. Learn more at deepisolation.com/nuclear-waste-podcast.

“Without listening and respect there can be no solution.” — Elizabeth Muller, Deep Isolation CEO

At Deep Isolation we believe that listening is one of the most important elements of creating a successful nuclear waste disposal program. A core company value is to seek out and listen to different perspectives on the matters of nuclear waste and safe disposal solutions.  

What better way is there to listen than to collect as much wisdom as possible into one place? That is why we created a new podcast and vlog series, Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story. This series features interviews with experts and stakeholders who’ve been intimately involved in many aspects of the nuclear waste management world, representing decades of experience that has given them invaluable insights. We intentionally are choosing interview subjects who may have vastly differing opinions from one another and from us.

This issue really does affect us all.  In the U.S., approximately 1-in-3 Americans live within 50 miles of a nuclear waste storage facility.  Across the globe, roughly 490,000 metric tons of accumulated waste sit waiting for disposal. Such storage facilities were never meant to be a permanent resting place for high-level spent nuclear fuel. While solutions have been pursued for decades, to date one has yet to be operationalized.

Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story Logo

The reasons for this are complex and should be explored because this problem impacts our lives — all of us on this planet now and future generations. I feel it’s important to understand the challenges we all face when it comes to storing and disposing of this radioactive waste, but I also know it’s not an easy topic to talk about. Our goal is to piece together some relevant and sometimes opposing perspectives to bring you a more informed sense of Nuclear Waste: The Whole Story.

Episodes At-a-Glance

“Nuclear Waste Disposal Difficulties Plague the Industry.” Arjun Makhijani, an electrical and nuclear engineer and President of Science Matters LLC, speaks colorfully and candidly about the weaknesses of various nuclear waste disposal and storage methods.

“Disposal Impasse Impacts the Future of Next Generation Reactors.” Rod McCullum,  Senior Director, Used Fuel and Decommissioning, Nuclear Energy Institute, offers an insider’s perspective on commercial nuclear waste disposal and explains why any failure to solve this problem could threaten the development of the next generation of nuclear energy reactors.

“Community Consent is Key to Waste Disposal.” Thomas Webler is a research fellow at the Social and Environmental Research Institute and an Associate Professor of Environmental Studies at Keene State College. He explains the importance of the concept of community consensus when it comes to issues such as nuclear waste disposal.

“Temporary Waste Storage Costs Keep Rising.” (Coming in July) James Taylor, General Manager of Bechtel’s Environmental Division of the Nuclear, Security, Environmental Global Business Unit, discusses the immense costs of temporary nuclear waste storage.

There are many ways to watch or listen to these interviews: Watch or listen to the first three episodes now on our website or subscribe to the audio on your favorite player through Apple, Spotify, or Google. Or just subscribe to our YouTube channel, where there is a playlist with all of the episodes.

An important note: While, yes, Deep Isolation is producing this series, any opinions expressed by either the interviewers or their subjects do not represent our official position.

In fact, we’d love to hear from you! Who do you think we should interview next? What questions about nuclear waste would you like answered? Let us know by sending an email to podcast@deepisolation.com.

London, United Kingdom — Deep Isolation, a leading innovator in nuclear waste disposal, is expanding to better serve the more than 30 countries in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA) that are seeking a safe and cost-effective nuclear waste solution.

The company, which has added to its EMEA team in London, just published a white paper for policymakers new to Deep Isolation to explain its nuclear waste disposal solution using deep horizontal boreholes.

“We have received great interest from both governmental and independent public bodies in the EMEA nuclear waste disposal market,” says Deep Isolation CEO, Elizabeth Muller. “I welcome their commitment to exploring the benefits of alternative options for nuclear waste storage and disposal, and I see this expanded presence as a way to learn about their needs so we can better meet them.”

To help inform EMEA nations about alternative disposal methods, the new white paper offers a benefits analysis comparing boreholes to large mined facilities, which are significantly more expensive and can take nearly a decade to complete. The paper explains how governments and scientists worldwide acknowledge that deep geological disposal is preferable because it is safer and more sustainable for the long-term.  

A Deep Isolation analysis of repositories planned by four governments – Canada, Sweden, the UK and the US – found that they would cost USD 172 billion (EUR 155 billion) in total in in 2020 prices, with construction taking about a decade. 

Deep Isolation’s research suggests that if all EMEA countries with nuclear waste built mined repositories at similar costs to the four countries studied, it would cost taxpayers USD 241 billion (EUR 217 billion). To avoid this, governments are instead paying for temporary storage, which is often in above-ground or near-surface facilities that then end up being used beyond their original planned lifespan. 

The alternative, deep horizontal boreholes, can be deployed in less than a year and provide the benefits of deep geological disposal for a fraction of the cost of a mined repository. Waste cannisters are placed under a billion tons of rock, safely isolated from the biosphere. If storage is the objective, the cannisters can be retrieved for several decades.  

“Our expanded EMEA headquarters allows us to more quickly deliver a safe and cost-effective solution for nuclear waste disposal and storage, says Bill Edwards, Senior Vice President of Strategy and Joint Managing Director, EMEA.

Edwards explains that the research published today looks at a typical scenario: A country with a small inventory of commercial spent fuel stored at two decommissioned nuclear reactors on a site with a shale-like sedimentary rock geology.

“We can deliver a savings of 70 percent compared to traditional means of geological disposal, and we can do it in a fraction of the time,” Edwards says.

Having raised more than USD 14 million, Deep Isolation has gained traction in the industry through the release of its Safety Calculations Report; a public borehole demonstration in Texas in early 2019; collaboration with partners and technical advisors including industry leaders such as Bechtel National, Schlumberger and NAC International; the publication of three technical papers; and receipt of a half dozen Letters of Intent from future customers.

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About Deep Isolation 
Deep Isolation is a leading innovator in nuclear waste storage and disposal. Founded upon values of environmental stewardship, scientific ingenuity, and social license, Deep Isolation offers a solution that leverages directional drilling technology to safely isolate nuclear waste deep underground.

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